Canadian Immigration Services.
A temporary resident (TR) is a foreign national who is legally authorized to enter Canada for temporary purposes.
A foreign national has TR status when they have been found to meet the requirements to enter and/or remain in Canada as a visitor, student, worker or temporary resident permit holder. Only foreign nationals physically in Canada hold temporary resident status.
IRCC these applications under several categories: such as temporary foreign workers, international students, visitors etc.
Canada has various immigration stream which allows interested foreign nationals to become permanent residents. These range from PNP programs which are paper-based, PNP programs that are linked to Express Entry, business immigration options, Federal Express Entry streams such as Federal Skilled Worker, Federal Skilled Trades, Canadian Experience Class etc.
There are two types of work permits in Canada. Employer specific ones and open work permits. Employer-based work permits in some cases requires the foreign nationals to obtain an LMIA from an employer. Or in some cases a job offer through the employer portal.
Open work permits allow a foreign national to work for any employer minus a few exceptions. Open work permits are only available in certain situations.
International Experience Canada (IEC)
The IEC provides youth with the opportunity to travel and work in Canada. There are three main IEC categories, working holiday, young professionals and international co-op internship. Dependents are not eligible to accompany their spouse/partners for work permits. However, they may qualify for their own work permit if they meet requirements. There are variations on eligibility criteria when applying through the IEC program. Such as age, length of work permit, proof of residence, criminal/medical admissibility, etc.